Children's Administration, Department of Social and Health Services
Children's Administration, Department of Social and Health Services
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Indian Child Welfare Manual

15.01 INTRODUCTION

This chapter contains federal statute, the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), 25 U.S.C. 1901, et. seq., Revised Code of Washington (RCW) laws applicable specifically to Indian child welfare (ICW) matters, and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 388- - , Indian Child Welfare. Children’s Administration staff and agencies licensed agencies licensed or certified under the provisions of chapter 388-15 RCW must comply with the legal provisions of this chapter.

15.05 FEDERAL INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT

15.051 Sec. 1901 -Congressional Findings

Recognizing the special relationship between the United States and the Indian tribes and their members and the Federal responsibility to Indian people, the Congress finds -

(1) That clause 3, section 8, article I of the United States Constitution provides that ''The Congress shall have Power * * * To regulate Commerce * * * with Indian tribes'' and, through this and other constitutional authority, Congress has plenary power over Indian affairs;

(2) That Congress, through statutes, treaties, and the general course of dealing with Indian tribes, has assumed the responsibility for the protection and preservation of Indian tribes and their resources;

(3) That there is no resource that is more vital to the continued existence and integrity of Indian tribes than their children and that the United States has a direct interest, as trustee, in protecting Indian children who are members of or are eligible for membership in an Indian tribe;

(4) That an alarmingly high percentage of Indian families are broken up by the removal, often unwarranted, of their children from them by non-tribal public and private agencies and that an alarmingly high percentage of such children are placed in non-Indian foster and adoptive homes and institutions; and

(5) That the States, exercising their recognized jurisdiction over Indian child custody proceedings through administrative and judicial bodies, have often failed to recognize the essential tribal relations of Indian people and the cultural and social standards prevailing in Indian communities and families.

13.052 Sec. 1902 - Congressional Declaration of Policy

The Congress hereby declares that it is the policy of this Nation to protect the best interests of Indian children and to promote the stability and security of Indian tribes and families by the establishment of minimum Federal standards for the removal of Indian children from their families and the placement of such children in foster or adoptive homes which will reflect the unique values of Indian culture, and by providing for assistance to Indian tribes in the operation of child and family service programs.

15.053 Sec. 1903 – Definitions

For the purposes of this chapter, except as may be specifically provided otherwise, the term –

(1) ''Child custody proceeding'' shall mean and include–

(i) ''Foster care placement'' which shall mean any action removing an Indian child from its parent or Indian custodian for temporary placement in a foster home or institution or the home of a guardian or conservator where the parent or Indian custodian cannot have the child returned upon demand, but where parental rights have not been terminated;

(ii) ''Termination of parental rights'' which shall mean any action resulting in the termination of the parent-child relationship;

(iii) ''Pre-adoptive placement'' which shall mean the temporary placement of an Indian child in a foster home or institution after the termination of parental rights, but prior to or in lieu of adoptive placement; and

(iv) ''Adoptive placement'' which shall mean the permanent placement of an Indian child for adoption, including any action resulting in a final decree of adoption. Such term or terms shall not include a placement based upon an act which, if committed by an adult, would be deemed a crime or upon an award, in a divorce proceeding, of custody to one of the parents.

(2) ''Extended family member'' shall be as defined by the law or custom of the Indian child's tribe or, in the absence of such law or custom, shall be a person who has reached the age of eighteen and who is the Indian child's grandparent, aunt or uncle, brother or sister, brother-in-law or sister-in-law, niece or nephew, first or second cousin, or stepparent;

(3) ''Indian'' means any person who is a member of an Indian tribe, or who is an Alaska Native and a member of a Regional Corporation as defined in 1606 of title 43;

(4) ''Indian child'' means any unmarried person who is under age eighteen and is either

(a) A member of an Indian tribe or

(b) Is eligible for membership in an Indian tribe and is the biological child of a member of an Indian tribe;

(5) ''Indian child's tribe'' means

(a) The Indian tribe in which an Indian child is a member or eligible for membership or

(b) In the case of an Indian child who is a member of or eligible for membership in more than one tribe, the Indian tribe with which the Indian child has the more significant contacts;

(6) ''Indiancustodian'' means any Indian person who has legal custody of an Indian child under tribal law or custom or under State law or to whom temporary physical care, custody, and control has been transferred by the parent of such child;

(7) ''Indian organization'' means any group, association, partnership, corporation, or other legal entity owned or controlled by Indians, or a majority of whose members are Indians;

(8) ''Indian tribe'' means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians recognized as eligible for the services provided to Indians by the Secretary because of their status as Indians, including any Alaska Native village as defined in section 1602(c) of title 43;

(9) ''Parent'' means any biological parent or parents of an Indian child or any Indian person who has lawfully adopted an Indian child, including adoptions under tribal law or custom. It does not include the unwed father where paternity has not been acknowledged or established;

(10) ''Reservation'' means Indian country as defined in section 1151 of title 18 and any lands, not covered under such section, title to which is either held by the United States in trust for the benefit of any Indian tribe or individual or held by any Indian tribe or individual subject to a restriction by the United States against alienation;

(11) ''Secretary'' means the Secretary of the Interior; and

(12) ''Tribal court'' means a court with jurisdiction over child custody proceedings and which is either a Court of Indian Offenses, a court established and operated under the code or custom of an Indian tribe, or any other administrative body of a tribe which is vested with authority over child custody proceedings.

15.054 Sec. 1911 – Indian Tribe Jurisdiction Over Indian Child Custody Proceedings

(a) Exclusive Jurisdiction

An Indian tribe shall have jurisdiction exclusive as to any State over any child custody proceeding involving an Indian child who resides or is domiciled within the reservation of such tribe, except where such jurisdiction is otherwise vested in the State by existing Federal law. Where an Indian child is a ward of a tribal court, the Indian tribe shall retain exclusive jurisdiction, notwithstanding the residence or domicile of the child.

(b) Transfer of Proceedings; Declination by Tribal Court

In any State court proceeding for the foster care placement of, or termination of parental rights to, an Indian child not domiciled or residing within the reservation of the Indian child's tribe, the court, in the absence of good cause to the contrary, shall transfer such proceeding to the jurisdiction of the tribe, absent objection by either parent, upon the petition of either parent or the Indian custodian or the Indian child's tribe: Provided, That such transfer shall be subject to declination by the tribal court of such tribe.

(c) State Court Proceedings; Intervention

In any State court proceeding for the foster care placement of, or termination of parental rights to, an Indian child, the Indian custodian of the child and the Indian child's tribe shall have a right to intervene at any point in the proceeding.

(d) Full Faith and Credit to Public Acts, Records, and Judicial Proceedings of Indian Tribes

The United States, every State, every territory or possession of the United States, and every Indian tribe shall give full faith and credit to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of any Indian tribe applicable to Indian child custody proceedings to the same extent that such entities give full faith and credit to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of any other entity.

15.055 Sec. 1912 – Pending Court Proceedings

(a) Notice; Time for Commencement of Proceedings; Additional Time for Preparation

In any involuntary proceeding in a State court, where the court knows or has reason to know that an Indian child is involved, the party seeking the foster care placement of, or termination of parental rights to, an Indian child shall notify the parent or Indian custodian and the Indian child's tribe, by registered mail with return receipt requested, of the pending proceedings and of their right of intervention. If the identity or location of the parent or Indian custodian and the tribe cannot be determined, such notice shall be given to the Secretary in like manner, who shall have fifteen days after receipt to provide the requisite notice to the parent or Indian custodian and the tribe. No foster care placement or termination of parental rights proceeding shall be held until at least ten days after receipt of notice by the parent or Indian custodian and the tribe or the Secretary: Provided, That the parent or Indian custodian or the tribe shall, upon request, be granted up to twenty additional days to prepare for such proceeding.

(b) Appointment of Counsel

In any case in which the court determines indigency, the parent or Indian custodian shall have the right to court-appointed counsel in any removal, placement, or termination proceeding. The court may, in its discretion, appoint counsel for the child upon a finding that such appointment is in the best interest of the child. Where State law makes no provision for appointment of counsel in such proceedings, the court shall promptly notify the Secretary upon appointment of counsel, and the Secretary, upon certification of the presiding judge, shall pay reasonable fees and expenses out of funds which may be appropriated pursuant to section 13 of this title.

(c) Examination of Reports or Other Documents

Each party to a foster care placement or termination of parental rights proceeding under State law involving an Indian child shall have the right to examine all reports or other documents filed with the court upon which any decision with respect to such action may be based.

(d) Remedial Services and Rehabilitative Programs; Preventive Measures

Any party seeking to effect a foster care placement of, or termination of parental rights to, an Indian child under State law shall satisfy the court that active effortshave been made to provide remedial services and rehabilitative programs designed to prevent the breakup of the Indian family and that these efforts have proved unsuccessful.

(e) Foster Care Placement Orders; Evidence; Determination of Damage to Child

No foster care placement may be ordered in such proceeding in the absence of a determination, supported by clear and convincing evidence, including testimony of qualified expert witnesses, that the continued custody of the child by the parent or Indian custodian is likely to result in serious emotional or physical damage to the child.

(f) Parental Rights Termination Orders; Evidence; Determination of Damage to Child

No termination of parental rights may be ordered in such proceeding in the absence of a determination, supported by evidence beyond a reasonable doubt, including testimony of qualified expert witnesses, that the continued custody of the child by the parent or Indian custodian is likely to result in serious emotional or physical damage to the child.

15.056 Sec. 1913 – Parental Rights, Voluntary Termination

(a) Consent; Record; Certification Matters; Invalid Consents

Where any parent or Indian custodian voluntarily consents to a foster care placement or to termination of parental rights, such consent shall not be valid unless executed in writing and recorded before a judge of a court of competent jurisdiction and accompanied by the presiding judge's certificate that the terms and consequences of the consent were fully explained in detail and were fully understood by the parent or Indian custodian. The court shall also certify that either the parent or Indian custodian fully understood the explanation in English or that it was interpreted into a language that the parent or Indian custodian understood. Any consent given prior to, or within ten days after, birth of the Indian child shall not be valid.

(b) Foster Care Placement; Withdrawal of Consent

Any parent or Indian custodian may withdraw consent to a foster care placement under State law at any time and, upon such withdrawal, the child shall be returned to the parent or Indian custodian.

(c) Voluntary Termination of Parental Rights or Adoptive Placement; Withdrawal of Consent; Return of Custody

In any voluntary proceeding for termination of parental rights to, or adoptive placement of, an Indian child, the consent of the parent may be withdrawn for any reason at any time prior to the entry of a final decree of termination or adoption, as the case may be, and the child shall be returned to the parent.

(d) Collateral Attack; Vacation of Decree and Return of Custody; Limitations

After the entry of a final decree of adoption of an Indian child in any State court, the parent may withdraw consent thereto upon the grounds that consent was obtained through fraud or duress and may petition the court to vacate such decree. Upon a finding that such consent was obtained through fraud or duress, the court shall vacate such decree and return the child to the parent. No adoption which has been effective for at least two years may be invalidated under the provisions of this subsection unless otherwise permitted under State law.

15.057 Sec. 1914 – Petition to Court of Competent Jurisdiction to Invalidate Action Upon Showing of Certain Violations

Any Indian child who is the subject of any action for foster care placement or termination of parental rights under State law, any parent or Indian custodian from whose custody such child was removed, and the Indian child's tribe may petition any court of competent jurisdiction to invalidate such action upon a showing that such action violated any provision of sections 1911, 1912, and 1913 of this title.

15.058 Sec. 1915 – Placement of Indian Children

(a) Adoptive Placements; Preferences

In any adoptive placement of an Indian child under State law, a preference shall be given, in the absence of good cause to the contrary, to a placement with

(1) A member of the child's extended family;

(2) Other members of the Indian child's tribe; or

(3) Other Indian families.

(b) Foster Care or Pre-adoptive Placements; Criteria; Preferences

Any child accepted for foster care or pre-adoptive placement shall be placed in the least restrictive setting which most approximates a family and in which his special needs, if any, may be met. The child shall also be placed within reasonable proximity to his or her home, taking into account any special needs of the child. In any foster care or pre-adoptive placement, a preference shall be given, in the absence of good cause to the contrary, to a placement with –

(i) A member of the Indian child's extended family;

(ii) A foster home licensed, approved, or specified by the Indian child's tribe;

(iii) An Indian foster home licensed or approved by an authorized non-Indian licensing authority; or

(iv) An institution for children approved by an Indian tribe or operated by an Indian organization which has a program suitable to meet the Indian child's needs.

(c) Tribal Resolution for Different Order of Preference; Personal Preference Considered; Anonymity in Application of Preferences

In the case of a placement under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, if the Indian child's tribe shall establish a different order of preference by resolution, the agency or court effecting the placement shall follow such order so long as the placement is the least restrictive setting appropriate to the particular needs of the child, as provided in subsection (b) of this section. Where appropriate, the preference of the Indian child or parent shall be considered: Provided, That where a consenting parent evidences a desire for anonymity, the court or agency shall give weight to such desire in applying the preferences.

(d) Social and Cultural Standards Applicable

The standards to be applied in meeting the preference requirements of this section shall be the prevailing social and cultural standards of the Indian community in which the parent or extended family resides or with which the parent or extended family members maintain social and cultural ties.

(e) Record of Placement; Availability

A record of each such placement, under State law, of an Indian child shall be maintained by the State in which the placement was made, evidencing the efforts to comply with the order of preference specified in this section. Such record shall be made available at any time upon the request of the Secretary or the Indian child's tribe.

15.059 Sec. 1916 – Return of Custody

(a) Petition; Best Interests of Child

Notwithstanding State law to the contrary, whenever a final decree of adoption of an Indian child has been vacated or set aside or the adoptive parents voluntarily consent to the termination of their parental rights to the child, a biological parent or prior Indian custodian may petition for return of custody and the court shall grant such petition unless there is a showing, in a proceeding subject to the provisions of section 1912 of this title, that such return of custody is not in the best interests of the child.

(b) Removal from Foster Care Home; Placement Procedure

Whenever an Indian child is removed from a foster care home or institution for the purpose of further foster care, pre-adoptive, or adoptive placement, such placement shall be in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, except in the case where an Indian child is being returned to the parent or Indian custodian from whose custody the child was originally removed.

15.0510 Sec. 1917 – Tribal Affiliation Information and Other Information for Protection of Rights from Tribal Relationship; Application of Subject of Adoptive Placement; Disclosure by Court

Upon application by an Indian individual who has reached the age of eighteen and who was the subject of an adoptive placement, the court which entered the final decree shall inform such individual of the tribal affiliation, if any, of the individual's biological parents and provide such other information as may be necessary to protect any rights flowing from the individual's tribal relationship.

15.0511 Sec. 1918 – Reassumption Jurisdiction Over Child Custody Proceedings

(a) Petition; Suitable Plan; Approval by Secretary

Any Indian tribe which became subject to State jurisdiction pursuant to the provisions of the Act of August 15, 1953 (67 Stat. 588), as amended by title IV of the Act of April 11, 1968 (82 Stat. 73, 78), or pursuant to any other Federal law, may reassume jurisdiction over child custody proceedings. Before any Indian tribe may reassume jurisdiction over Indian child custody proceedings, such tribe shall present to the Secretary for approval a petition to reassume such jurisdiction which includes a suitable plan to exercise such jurisdiction.

(b) Criteria Applicable to Consideration by Secretary; Partial Retrocession

(1) In considering the petition and feasibility of the plan of a tribe under subsection

(a) of this section, the Secretary may consider, among other things:

(i) Whether or not the tribe maintains a membership roll or alternative provision for clearly identifying the persons who will be affected by the reassumption of jurisdiction by the tribe;

(ii) The size of the reservation or former reservation area which will be affected by retrocession and reassumption of jurisdiction by the tribe;

(iii) The population base of the tribe, or distribution of the population in homogeneous communities or geographic areas; and

(iv) The feasibility of the plan in cases of multi-tribal occupation of a single reservation or geographic area.

2. In those cases where the Secretary determines that the jurisdictional provisions of section 1911(a) of this title are not feasible, he is authorized to accept partial retrocession which will enable tribes to exercise referral jurisdiction as provided in section 1911(b) of this title, or, where appropriate, will allow them to exercise exclusive jurisdiction as provided in section 1911(a) of this title over limited community or geographic areas without regard for the reservation status of the area affected.

(c) Approval of Petition; Publication in Federal Register; Notice; Reassumption Period; Correction of Causes for Disapproval

If the Secretary approves any petition under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall publish notice of such approval in the Federal Register and shall notify the affected State or States of such approval. The Indian tribe concerned shall reassume jurisdiction sixty days after publication in the Federal Register of notice of approval. If the Secretary disapproves any petition under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall provide such technical assistance as may be necessary to enable the tribe to correct any deficiency which the Secretary identified as a cause for disapproval.

(d) Pending Actions or Proceedings Unaffected

Assumption of jurisdiction under this section shall not affect any action or proceeding over which a court has already assumed jurisdiction, except as may be provided pursuant to any agreement under section 1919 of this title.

15.0512 Sec. 1919 – Agreements Between States and Indian Tribes

(a) Subject Coverage

States and Indian tribes are authorized to enter into agreements with each other respecting care and custody of Indian children and jurisdiction over child custody proceedings, including agreements which may provide for orderly transfer of jurisdiction on a case-by-case basis and agreements which provide for concurrent jurisdiction between States and Indian tribes.

(b) Revocation; Notice; Actions or Proceedings Unaffected

Such agreements may be revoked by either party upon one hundred and eighty days' written notice to the other party. Such revocation shall not affect any action or proceeding over which a court has already assumed jurisdiction, unless the agreement provides otherwise.

15.0513 Sec. 1920 – Improper Removal of Child from Custody; Declination of Jurisdiction; Forthwith Return of Child: Danger Exception

Where any petitioner in an Indian child custody proceeding before a State court has improperly removed the child from custody of the parent or Indian custodian or has improperly retained custody after a visit or other temporary relinquishment of custody, the court shall decline jurisdiction over such petition and shall forthwith return the child to his parent or Indian custodian unless returning the child to his parent or custodian would subject the child to a substantial and immediate danger or threat of such danger.

15.0514 Sec. 1921 – Higher State or Federal Standard Applicable to Protect Rights of Parent or Indian Custodian of Indian Child

In any case where State or Federal law applicable to a child custody proceeding under State or Federal law provides a higher standard of protection to the rights of the parent or Indian custodian of an Indian child than the rights provided under this subchapter, the State or Federal court shall apply the State or Federal standard.

15.0515 Sec. 1922 – Emergency Removal or Placement of Child; Termination; Appropriate Action

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to prevent the emergency removal of an Indian child who is a resident of or is domiciled on a reservation, but temporarily located off the reservation, from his parent or Indian custodian or the emergency placement of such child in a foster home or institution, under applicable State law, in order to prevent imminent physical damage or harm to the child. The State authority, official, or agency involved shall insure that the emergency removal or placement terminates immediately when such removal or placement is no longer necessary to prevent imminent physical damage or harm to the child and shall expeditiously initiate a child custody proceeding subject to the provisions of this subchapter, transfer the child to the jurisdiction of the appropriate Indian tribe, or restore the child to the parent or Indian custodian, as may be appropriate.

15.0516 Sec. 1923 – Effective Date

None of the provisions of this subchapter, except sections 1911(a), 1918, and 1919 of this title, shall affect a proceeding under State law for foster care placement, termination of parental rights, pre-adoptive placement, or adoptive placement which was initiated or completed prior to one hundred and eighty days after November 8, 1978, but shall apply to any subsequent proceeding in the same matter or subsequent proceedings affecting the custody or placement of the same child.

15.0517 Sec. 1931 – Grants for On or Near Reservation Programs and Child WelfareCodes

(a) Statement of Purpose; Scope of Programs

The Secretary is authorized to make grants to Indian tribes and organizations in the establishment and operation of Indian child and family service programs on or near reservations and in the preparation and implementation of child welfare codes. The objective of every Indian child and family service program shall be to prevent the breakup of Indian families and, in particular, to insure that the permanent removal of an Indian child from the custody of his parent or Indian custodian shall be a last resort. Such child and family service programs may include, but are not limited to -

(1) A system for licensing or otherwise regulating Indian foster and adoptive homes;

(2) The operation and maintenance of facilities for the counseling and treatment of Indian families and for the temporary custody of Indian children;

(3) Family assistance, including homemaker and home counselors, day care, after-school care, and employment, recreational activities, and respite care;

(4) Home improvement programs;

(5) The employment of professional and other trained personnel to assist the tribal court in the disposition of domestic relations and child welfare matters;

(6) Education and training of Indians, including tribal court judges and staff, in skills relating to child and family assistance and service programs;

(7) A subsidy program under which Indian adoptive children may be provided support comparable to that for which they would be eligible as foster children, taking into account the appropriate State standards of support for maintenance and medical needs; and

(8) Guidance, legal representation, and advice to Indian families involved in tribal, State, or Federal child custody proceedings.

(b) Non-Federal Matching Funds for Related Social Security or other Federal Financial Assistance Programs; Assistance for such Programs Unaffected; State Licensing or Approval for Qualification for Assistance under Federally Assisted Program

Funds appropriated for use by the Secretary in accordance with this section may be utilized as non-Federal matching share in connection with funds provided under titles IV-B and XX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 620 et seq., 1397 et seq.) or under any other Federal financial assistance programs which contribute to the purpose for which such funds are authorized to be appropriated for use under this chapter. The provision or possibility of assistance under this chapter shall not be a basis for the denial or reduction of any assistance otherwise authorized under titles IV-B and XX of the Social Security Act or any other federally assisted program. For purposes of qualifying for assistance under a federally assisted program, licensing or approval of foster or adoptive homes or institutions by an Indian tribe shall be deemed equivalent to licensing or approval by a State.

15.0518 Sec. 1932 – Grants for Off-Reservation Programs for Additional Services

The Secretary is also authorized to make grants to Indian organizations to establish and operate off-reservation Indian child and family service programs which may include, but are not limited to –

(1) A system for regulating, maintaining, and supporting Indian foster and adoptive homes, including a subsidy program under which Indian adoptive children may be provided support comparable to that for which they would be eligible as Indian foster children, taking into account the appropriate State standards of support for maintenance and medical needs;

(2) The operation and maintenance of facilities and services for counseling and treatment of Indian families and Indian foster and adoptive children;

(3) Family assistance, including homemaker and home counselors, day care, after-school care, and employment, recreational activities, and respite care; and

(4) Guidance, legal representation, and advice to Indian families involved in child custody proceedings.

15.0519 Sec. 1933 – Funds for On and Off Reservation Programs

(a) Appropriated Funds for Similar Programs of Department of Health and Human Services; Appropriation in Advance for Payments

In the establishment, operation, and funding of Indian child and family service programs, both on and off reservation, the Secretary may enter into agreements with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and the latter Secretary is hereby authorized for such purposes to use funds appropriated for similar programs of the Department of Health and Human Services: Provided, That authority to make payments pursuant to such agreements shall be effective only to the extent and in such amounts as may be provided in advance by appropriation Acts.

(b) Appropriation Authorization under Section 13 of this Title

Funds for the purposes of this chapter may be appropriated pursuant to the provisions of section 13 of this title.

15.0520 Sec. 1934 – “Indian” Defined for Certain Purposes

For the purposes of sections 1932 and 1933 of this title, the term ''Indian'' shall include persons defined in section 1603(c) of this title.

15.0521 Sec. 1951 – Information Availability to and Disclosure by Secretary

(a) Copy of Final Decree or Order; Other Information; Anonymity Affidavit; Exemption from Freedom of Information Act

Any State court entering a final decree or order in any Indian child adoptive placement after November 8, 1978, shall provide the Secretary with a copy of such decree or order together with such other information as may be necessary to show –

(1) The name and tribal affiliation of the child;

(2) The names and addresses of the biological parents;

(3) The names and addresses of the adoptive parents; and

(4) The identity of any agency having files or information relating to such adoptive placement.

Where the court records contain an affidavit of the biological parent or parents that their identity remain confidential, the court shall include such affidavit with the other information. The Secretary shall insure that the confidentiality of such information is maintained and such information shall not be subject to the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552), as amended.

(b) Disclosure of Information for Enrollment of Indian Child in Tribe or for Determination of Member Rights or Benefits; Certification of Entitlement to Enrollment

Upon the request of the adopted Indian child over the age of eighteen, the adoptive or foster parents of an Indian child, or an Indian tribe, the Secretary shall disclose such information as may be necessary for the enrollment of an Indian child in the tribe in which the child may be eligible for enrollment or for determining any rights or benefits associated with that membership. Where the documents relating to such child contain an affidavit from the biological parent or parents requesting anonymity, the Secretary shall certify to the Indian child's tribe, where the information warrants, that the child's parentage and other circumstances of birth entitle the child to enrollment under the criteria established by such tribe.

15.0522 Sec. 1952 – Rules and Regulations

Within one hundred and eighty days after November 8, 1978, the Secretary shall promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter.

15.0523 Sec. 1961 – Education; Day Schools; Report to Congressional Committees; ParticularConsideration of Elementary Grade Facilities

(a) Sense of Congress

It is the sense of Congress that the absence of locally convenient day schools may contribute to the breakup of Indian families.

(b) Report to Congress; Contents, Etc.

The Secretary is authorized and directed to prepare, in consultation with appropriate agencies in the Department of Health and Human Services, a report on the feasibility of providing Indian children with schools located near their homes, and to submit such report to the Select Committee on Indian Affairs of the United States Senate and the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the United States House of Representatives within two years from November 8, 1978. In developing this report the Secretary shall give particular consideration to the provision of educational facilities for children in the elementary grades.

15.0524 Sec. 1962 – Copies to the States

Within sixty days after November 8, 1978, the Secretary shall send to the Governor, chief justice of the highest court of appeal, and the attorney general of each State a copy of this chapter, together with committee reports and an explanation of the provisions of this chapter.

15.0525 Sec. 1963 – Severability of Provisions

If any provision of this chapter or the applicability thereof is held invalid, the remaining provisions of this chapter shall not be affected thereby.

15.10 STATE INDIAN CHILD WELFARE LAWS

15.101 RCW 13.04.030 – Juvenile Court Exclusive Jurisdiction

(1) Except as provided in this section, the juvenile courts in this state shall have exclusive original jurisdiction over all proceedings:

(a) Under the interstate compact on placement of children as provided in chapter 26.34 RCW;

(b) Relating to children alleged or found to be dependent as provided in chapter 26.44 RCW and in RCW 13.34.030 through13.34.170;

(c) Relating to the termination of a parent and child relationship as provided in RCW 13.34.180 through 13.34.210;

(d) To approve or disapprove out-of-home placement as provided in RCW 13.32A.170;

(e) Relating to juveniles alleged or found to have committed offenses, traffic or civil infractions, or violations as provided in RCW 13.40.020 through 13.40.230, unless:

(i) The juvenile court transfers jurisdiction of a particular juvenile to adult criminal court pursuant to RCW 13.40.110;

(ii) The statute of limitations applicable to adult prosecution for the offense, traffic or civil infraction, or violation has expired;

(iii) The alleged offense or infraction is a traffic, fish, boating, or game offense, or traffic or civil infraction committed by a juvenile sixteen years of age or older and would, if committed by an adult, be tried or heard in a court of limited jurisdiction, in which instance the appropriate court of limited jurisdiction shall have jurisdiction over the alleged offense or infraction, and no guardian ad litemis required in any such proceeding due to the juvenile's age:

PROVIDED, That if such an alleged offense or infraction and an alleged offense or infraction subject to juvenile court jurisdiction arise out of the same event or incident, the juvenile court may have jurisdiction of both matters:

PROVIDED FURTHER, That the jurisdiction under this subsection does not constitute "transfer" or a "decline" for purposes of RCW 13.40.110(1) or (e)(i) of this subsection:

PROVIDED FURTHER, That courts of limited jurisdiction which confine juveniles for an alleged offense or infraction may place juveniles in juvenile detention facilities under an agreement with the officials responsible for the administration of the juvenile detention facility in RCW 13.04.035 and 13.20.060;

(iv) The alleged offense is a traffic or civil infraction, a violation of compulsory school attendance provisions under chapter 28A.225 RCW, or a misdemeanor, and a court of limited jurisdiction has assumed concurrent jurisdiction over those offenses as provided in RCW 13.04.0301; or

(v) The juvenile is sixteen or seventeen years old and the alleged offense is:

(A) A serious violent offense as defined in RCW 9.94A.030;

(B) A violent offense as defined in RCW 9.94A.030 and the juvenile has a criminal history consisting of:

(I) One or more prior serious violent offenses;

(II) Two or more prior violent offenses; or

(III) Three or more of any combination of the following offenses:

· Any class A felony,

· Any class B felony, vehicular assault, or manslaughter in the second degree, all of which must have been committed after the juvenile's thirteenth birthday and prosecuted separately;

(C) Robbery in the first degree, rape of a child in the first degree, or drive-by shooting, committed on or after July 1, 1997;

(D) Burglary in the first degree committed on or after July 1,1997, and the juvenile has a criminal history consisting of one or more prior felony or misdemeanor offenses; or

(E) Any violent offense as defined in RCW 9.94A.030 committed on or after July 1, 1997, and the juvenile is alleged to have been armed with a firearm. In such a case the adult criminal court shall have exclusive original jurisdiction. If the juvenile challenges the state's determination of the juvenile's criminal history under (e)(v) of this subsection, the state may establish the offender's criminal history by a preponderance of the evidence. If the criminal history consists of adjudications entered upon a plea of guilty, the state shall not bear a burden of establishing the knowing and voluntariness of the plea;

(f) Under the interstate compact on juveniles as provided in chapter 13.24 RCW;

(g) Relating to termination of a diversion agreement under RCW13.40.080, including a proceeding in which the divertee has attained eighteen years of age;

(h) Relating to court validation of a voluntary consent to an out-of-home placement under chapter 13.34 RCW, by the parent or Indian custodian of an Indian child, except if the parent or Indian custodian and child are residents of or domiciled within the boundaries of a federally recognized Indian reservation over which the tribe exercises exclusive jurisdiction;

(i) Relating to petitions to compel disclosure of information filed by the department of social and health services pursuant to RCW 74.13.042; and

(j) Relating to judicial determinations and permanency planning hearings involving developmentally disabled children who have been placed in out-of-home care pursuant to a voluntary placement agreement between the child's parent, guardian, or legal custodian and the department of social and health services.

(2) The family court shall have concurrent original jurisdiction with the juvenile court over all proceedings under this section if the superior court judges of a county authorize concurrent jurisdiction as provided in RCW 26.12.010.

(3) A juvenile subject to adult superior court jurisdiction under subsection (1)(e)(i) through (v) of this section, who is detained pending trial, may be detained in a detention facility as defined in RCW 13.40.020 pending sentencing or a dismissal.

15.102 RCW 13.34.245 - Voluntary consent to foster care placement for Indian child--Validation--Withdrawal of consent--Termination

(1) Where any parent or Indian custodian voluntarily consents to foster care placement of an Indian child and a petition for dependency has not been filed regarding the child, such consent shall not be valid unless executed in writing before the court and filed with the court. The consent shall be accompanied by the written certification of the court that the terms and consequences of the consent were fully explained in detail to the parent or Indian custodian during the court proceeding and were fully understood by the parent or Indian custodian. The court shall also certify in writing either that the parent or Indian custodian fully understood the explanation in English or that it was interpreted into a language that the parent or Indian custodian understood. Any consent given prior to, or within ten days after, the birth of the Indian child shall not be valid.

(2) To obtain court validation of a voluntary consent to foster care placement, any person may file a petition for validation alleging that there is located or residing within the county an Indian child whose parent or Indian custodian wishes to voluntarily consent to foster care placement of the child and requesting that the court validate the consent as provided in this section. The petition shall contain the name, date of birth, and residence of the child, the names and residences of the consenting parent or Indian custodian, and the name and location of the Indian tribe in which the child is a member or eligible for membership. The petition shall state whether the placement preferences of 25 U.S.C. Sec. 1915 (b) or (c) will be followed. Reasonable attempts shall be made by the petitioner to ascertain and set forth in the petition the identity, location, and custodial status of any parent or Indian custodian who has not consented to foster care placement and why that parent or Indian custodian cannot assume custody of the child.

(3) Upon filing of the petition for validation, the clerk of the court shall schedule the petition for a hearing on the court validation of the voluntary consent no later than forty-eight hours after the petition has been filed, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays. Notification of time, date, location, and purpose of the validation hearing shall be provided as soon as possible to the consenting parent or Indian custodian, the department or other child-placing agency which is to assume responsibility for the child's placement and care pursuant to the consent to foster care placement, and the Indian tribe in which the child is enrolled or eligible for enrollment as a member. If the identity and location of any non-consenting parent or Indian custodian is known, reasonable attempts shall be made to notify the parent or Indian custodian of the consent to placement and the validation hearing. Notification under this subsection may be given by the most expedient means, including, but not limited to, mail, personal service, telephone, and telegraph.

(4) Any parent or Indian custodian may withdraw consent to a voluntary foster care placement, made under this section, at anytime. Unless the Indian child has been taken in custody pursuant to RCW 13.34.050 or 26.44.050, placed in shelter care pursuant to RCW 13.34.060, or placed in foster care pursuant to RCW 13.34.130, the Indian child shall be returned to the parent or Indian custodian upon withdrawal of consent to foster care placement of the child.

(5) Upon termination of the voluntary foster care placement and return of the child to the parent or Indian custodian, the department or other child-placing agency which had assumed responsibility for the child's placement and care pursuant to the consent to foster care placement shall file with the court written notification of the child's return and shall also send such notification to the Indian tribe in which the child is enrolled or eligible for enrollment as a member and to any other party to the validation proceeding including any non-custodial parent.

15.103 RCW 26.33.080 - Petition for Relinquishment--Filing—Written Consent Required

(1) A parent, an alleged father, the department, or an agency may file with the court a petition to relinquish a child to the department or an agency. The parent's or alleged father's written consent to adoption shall accompany the petition. The written consent of the department or the agency to assume custody shall be filed with the petition.

(2) A parent, alleged father, or prospective adoptive parent may file with the court a petition to relinquish a child to the prospective adoptive parent. The parent's or alleged father's written consent to adoption shall accompany the petition. The written consent of the prospective adoptive parent to assume custody shall be filed with the petition. The identity of the prospective adoptive parent need not be disclosed to the petitioner.

(3) A petition for relinquishment, together with the written consent to adoption, may be filed before the child's birth. If the child is an Indian child as defined in 25 U.S.C. Sec. 1903(4), the petition and consent shall not be signed until at least ten days after the child's birth and shall be recorded before a court of competent jurisdiction pursuant to 25 U.S.C. Sec. 1913(a).

15.104 RCW 26.33.090- Petition for relinquishment--Hearing—Temporary Custody Order--Notice--Order of Relinquishment

(1) The court shall set a time and place for a hearing on the petition for relinquishment. The hearing may not be held sooner than forty-eight hours after the child's birth or the signing of all necessary consents to adoption, whichever is later. However, if the child is an Indian child, the hearing shall not be held sooner than ten days after the child's birth, and no consent shall be valid unless signed at least ten days after the child's birth and recorded before a court of competent jurisdiction pursuant to 25 U.S.C. Sec.1913(a). Except where the child is an Indian child, the court may enter a temporary order giving custody of the child to the prospective adoptive parent, if a pre-placement report has been filed, or to the department or agency to whom the child will be relinquished pending the court's hearing on the petition. If the child is an Indian child, the court may enter a temporary custody order under this subsection only if the requirements of 25 U.S.C. Sec. 1913(a) regarding voluntary foster care placement have been satisfied.

(2) Notice of the hearing shall be served on any relinquishing parent or alleged father, and the department or agency in the manner prescribed by RCW 26.33.310. If the child is an Indian child, notice of the hearing shall also be served on the child's tribe in the manner prescribed by RCW 26.33.310.

(3) The court may require the parent to appear personally and enter his or her consent to adoption on the record. However, if the child is an Indian child, the court shall require the consenting parent to appear personally before a court of competent jurisdiction to enter on the record his or her consent to the relinquishment or adoption. The court shall determine that any written consent has been validly executed, and if the child is an Indian child, such court shall further certify that the requirements of 25 U.S.C. Sec. 1913(a) have been satisfied. If the court determines it is in the best interests of the child, the court shall approve the petition for relinquishment.

(4) If the court approves the petition, it shall award custody of the child to the department, agency, or prospective adoptive parent, who shall be appointed legal guardian. The legal guardian shall be financially responsible for support of the child until further order of the court. The court shall also enter an order pursuant to RCW 26.33.130 terminating the parent-child relationship of the parent and the child.

(5) An order of relinquishment to an agency or the department shall include an order authorizing the agency to place the child with a prospective adoptive parent.

15.105 RCW 26.33.110- Petition for Termination--Time and Place of Hearing--Notice of Hearing and Petition--Contents

(1) The court shall set a time and place for a hearing on the petition for termination of the parent-child relationship, which shall not beheld sooner than forty-eight hours after the child's birth. However, if the child is an Indian child, the hearing shall not be held sooner than ten days after the child's birth and the time of the hearing shall be extended up to twenty additional days from the date of the scheduled hearing upon the motion of the parent, Indian custodian, or the child's tribe.

(2) Notice of the hearing shall be served on the petitioner, the non-consenting parent or alleged father, the legal guardian of a party, and the guardian ad litemof a party, in the manner prescribed by RCW 26.33.310. If the child is an Indian child, notice of the hearing shall also be served on the child's tribe in the manner prescribed by 25 U.S.C. Sec. 1912(a).

(3) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the notice of the petition shall:

(a) State the date and place of birth. If the petition is filed prior to birth, the notice shall state the approximate date and location of conception of the child and the expected date of birth, and shall identify the mother;

(b) Inform the non-consenting parent or alleged father that:

(i) He or she has a right to be represented by counsel and that counsel will be appointed for an indigent person who requests counsel; and

(ii) Failure to respond to the termination action within twenty days of service if served within the state or thirty days if served outside of this state, will result in the termination of his or her parent-child relationship with respect to the child;

(c) Inform an alleged father that failure to file a claim of paternity under chapter 26.26 RCW or to respond to the petition, within twenty days of the date of service of the petition is grounds to terminate his parent-child relationship with respect to the child;

(d) Inform an alleged father of an Indian child that if he acknowledges paternity of the child or if his paternity of the child is established prior to the termination of the parent-child relationship, that his parental rights may not be terminated unless he:

(i) Gives valid consent to termination, or

(ii) His parent-child relationship is terminated involuntarily pursuant to chapter 26.33 or 13.34 RCW.

15.106 RCW 26.33.120- Termination--Grounds--Failure to Appear

(1) Except in the case of an Indian child and his or her parent , the parent-child relationship of a parent may be terminated upon a showing by clear, cogent, and convincing evidence that it is in the best interest of the child to terminate the relationship and that the parent has failed to perform parental duties under circumstances showing a substantial lack of regard for his or her parental obligations and is withholding consent to adoption contrary to the best interest of the child.

(2) Except in the case of an Indian child and his or her alleged father, the parent-child relationship of an alleged father who appears and claims paternity may be terminated upon a showing by clear, cogent, and convincing evidence that it is in the best interest of the child to terminate the relationship and that:

(a) The alleged father has failed to perform parental duties under circumstances showing a substantial lack of regard for his parental obligations and is withholding consent to adoption contrary to the best interest of the child; or

(b) He is not the father.

(3) The parent-child relationship of a parent or an alleged father may be terminated if the parent or alleged father fails to appear after being notified of the hearing in the manner prescribed by RCW 26.33.310.

(4) The parent-child relationship of an Indian child and his or her parent or alleged father where paternity has been claimed or established, may be terminated only pursuant to the standards set forth in 25 U.S.C. Sec. 1912(f).

15.107 RCW 26.33.160- Consent to adoption--When revocable—Procedure

(1) Except as otherwise provided in RCW 26.33.170, consent to an adoption shall be required of the following if applicable:

(a) The adoptee, if fourteen years of age or older;

(b) The parents and any alleged father of an adoptee under eighteen years of age;

(c) An agency or the department to whom the adoptee has been relinquished pursuant to RCW 26.33.080; and

(d) The legal guardian of the adoptee.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (4)(h) of this section, consent to adoption is revocable by the consenting party at any time before the consent is approved by the court. The revocation may be made in either of the following ways:

(a) Written revocation may be delivered or mailed to the clerk of the court before approval; or

(b) Written revocation may be delivered or mailed to the clerk of the court after approval, but only if it is delivered or mailed within forty-eight hours after a prior notice of revocation that was given within forty-eight hours after the birth of the child. The prior notice of revocation shall be given to the agency or person who sought the consent and may be either oral or written.

(3) Except as provided in subsections (2)(b) and (4)(h) of this section and in this subsection, a consent to adoption may not be revoked after it has been approved by the court. Within one year after approval, a consent may be revoked for fraud or duress practiced by the person, department, or agency requesting the consent, or for lack of mental competency on the part of the person giving the consent at the time the consent was given. A written consent to adoption may not be revoked more than one year after it is approved by the court.

(4) Except as provided in (h) of this subsection, the written consent to adoption shall be signed under penalty of perjury and shall state that:

(a) It is given subject to approval of the court;

(b) It has no force or effect until approved by the court;

(c) The birth parent is or is not of Native American or Alaska native ancestry;

(d) The consent will not be presented to the court until forty-eight hours after it is signed or forty-eight hours after the birth of the child, whichever occurs later;

(e) It is revocable by the consenting party at any time before its approval by the court. It may be revoked in either of the following ways:

(i) Written revocation may be delivered or mailed to the clerk of the court before approval of the consent by the court; or

(ii) Written revocation may be delivered or mailed to the clerk of the court after approval, but only if it is delivered or mailed within forty-eight hours after a prior notice of revocation that was given within forty-eight hours after the birth of the child. The prior notice of revocation shall be given to the agency or person who sought the consent and may be either oral or written;

(f) The address of the clerk of court where the consent will be presented is included;

(g) Except as provided in (h) of this subsection, after it has been approved by the court, the consent is not revocable except for fraud or duress practiced by the person, department, or agency requesting the consent or for lack of mental competency on the part of the person giving the consent at the time the consent was given. A written consent to adoption may not be revoked more than one year after it is approved by the court;

(h) In the case of a consent to an adoption of an Indian child, no consent shall be valid unless the consent is executed in writing more than ten days after the birth of the child and unless the consent is recorded before a court of competent jurisdiction pursuant to 25 U.S.C. Sec. 1913(a). Consent may be withdrawn for any reason at any time prior to the entry of the final decree of adoption. Consent may be withdrawn for fraud or duress within two years of the entry of the final decree of adoption. Revocation of the consent prior to a final decree of adoption, may be delivered or mailed to the clerk of the court or made orally to the court which shall certify such revocation. Revocation of the consent is effective if received by the clerk of the court prior to the entry of the final decree of adoption or made orally to the court at any time prior to the entry of the final decree of adoption. Upon withdrawal of consent, the court shall return the child to the parent unless the child has been taken into custody pursuant to RCW13.34.050 or 26.44.050, placed in shelter care pursuant to RCW 13.34.060, or placed in foster care pursuant to RCW 13.34.130; and

(i) The following statement has been read before signing the consent:

I understand that my decision to relinquish the child is an extremely important one, that the legal effect of this relinquishment will be to take from me all legal rights and obligations with respect to the child, and that an order permanently terminating all of my parental rights to the child will be entered. I also understand that there are social services and counseling services available in the community, and that there may be financial assistance available through state and local governmental agencies.

(5) A written consent to adoption which meets all the requirements of this chapter but which does not name or otherwise identify the adopting parent is valid if it contains a statement that it is voluntarily executed without disclosure of the name or other identification of the adopting parent.

(6) There must be a witness to the consent of the parent or alleged father. The witness must be at least eighteen years of age and selected by the parent or alleged father. The consent document shall contain a statement identifying by name, address, and relationship the witness selected by the parent or alleged father.

15.108 RCW 26.33.240- Petition for Adoption--Hearing--Notice--Disposition

(1) After the reports required by RCW 26.33.190 and 26.33.200 have been filed, the court shall schedule a hearing on the petition for adoption upon request of the petitioner for adoption. Notice of the date, time, and place of hearing shall be given to the petitioner and any person or agency whose consent to adoption is required under RCW 26.33.160, unless the person or agency has waived in writing the right to receive notice of the hearing. If the child is an Indian child, notice shall also be given to the child's tribe. Notice shall be given in the manner prescribed by RCW 26.33.310.

(2) Notice of the adoption hearing shall also be given to any person who or agency which has prepared a pre-placement report. The notice shall be given in the manner prescribed by RCW 26.33.230.

(3) If the court determines, after review of the petition, pre-placement and post-placement reports, and other evidence introduced at the hearing, that all necessary consents to adoption are valid or have been dispensed with pursuant to RCW 26.33.170 and that the adoption is in the best interest of the adoptee, and, in the case of an adoption of an Indian child, that the adoptive parents are within the placement preferences of 25 U.S.C. Sec. 1915 or good cause to the contrary has been shown on the record, the court shall enter a decree of adoption pursuant to RCW 26.33.250.

(4) If the court determines the petition should not be granted because the adoption is not in the best interest of the child, the court shall make appropriate provision for the care and custody of the child.

15.109 RCW 26.33.310 - Notice--Requirements--Waiver

(1) Petitions governed by this chapter shall be served in the manner as set forth in the superior court civil rules. Subsequent notice, papers, and pleadings may be served in the manner provided in superior court civil rules.

(2) If personal service on any parent or alleged father who has not consented to the termination of his or her parental rights can be given, the summons and notice of hearing on the petition to terminate parental rights shall be served at least twenty days before the hearing date if served within the state or thirty days if served outside of this state.

(3) If personal service on the parent or any alleged father, either within or without this state, cannot be given, notice shall be given:

(a) By first class and registered mail, mailed at least thirty days before the hearing to the person's last known address; and

(b) By publication at least once a week for three consecutive weeks with the first publication date at least thirty days before the hearing. Publication shall be in a legal newspaper in the city or town of the last known address within the United States and its territories of the parent or alleged father, whether within or without this state, or, if no address is known to the petitioner, publication shall be in the city or town of the last known whereabouts within the United States and its territories; or if no address or whereabouts are known to the petitioner or the last known address is not within the United States and its territories, in the city or town where the proceeding has been commenced.

(4) Notice and appearance may be waived by the department, an agency, a parent, or an alleged father before the court or in a writing signed under penalty of perjury. The waiver shall contain the current address of the department, agency, parent, or alleged father. The face of the waiver for a hearing on termination of the parent-child relationship shall contain language explaining the meaning and consequences of the waiver and the meaning and consequences of termination of the parent-child relationship. A person or agency who has executed a waiver shall not be required to appear except in the case of an Indian child where consent to termination or adoption must be certified before a court of competent jurisdiction pursuant to 25 U.S.C. Sec. 1913(a).

(5) If a person entitled to notice is known to the petitioner to be unable to read or understand English, all notices, if practicable, shall be given in that person's native language or through an interpreter.

(6) Where notice to an Indian tribe is to be provided pursuant to this chapter and the department is not a party to the proceeding, notice shall be given to the tribe at least ten business days prior to the hearing by registered mail return receipt requested.

15.1010 RCW 74.13.031- Duties of Department--Child Welfare Services--Children's Services Advisory Committee

The department shall have the duty to provide child welfare services and shall:

(1) Develop, administer, supervise, and monitor a coordinated and comprehensive plan that establishes, aids, and strengthens services for the protection and care of runaway, dependent, or neglected children.

(2) Within available resources, recruit an adequate number of prospective adoptive and foster homes, both regular and specialized, i.e. homes for children of ethnic minority , including Indian homes for Indian children, sibling groups, handicapped and emotionally disturbed, teens, pregnant and parenting teens, and annually report to the governor and the legislature concerning the department's success in:

(a) Meeting the need for adoptive and foster home placements;

(b) Reducing the foster parent turnover rate;

(c) Completing home studies for legally free children; and

(d) Implementing and operating the passport program required by RCW 74.13.285. The report shall include a section entitled "Foster Home Turn-Over, Causes and Recommendations."

(3) Investigate complaints of any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker that results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, or sexual abuse or exploitation, or that presents an imminent risk of serious harm, and on the basis of the findings of such investigation, offer child welfare services in relation to the problem to such parents, legal custodians, or persons serving in loco parentis, and/or bring the situation to the attention of an appropriate court, or another community agency:

PROVIDED, That an investigation is not required of non-accidental injuries which are clearly not the result of a lack of care or supervision by the child's parents, legal custodians, or persons serving in loco parentis. If the investigation reveals that a crime against a child may have been committed, the department shall notify the appropriate law enforcement agency.

(4) Offer, on a voluntary basis, family reconciliation services to families who are in conflict.

(5) Monitor out-of-home placements, on a timely and routine basis, to assure the safety, well-being, and quality of care being provided is within the scope of the intent of the legislature as defined in RCW 74.13.010 and 74.15.010, and annually submit a report measuring the extent to which the department achieved the specified goals to the governor and the legislature.

(6) Have authority to accept custody of children from parents and to accept custody of children from juvenile courts, where authorized to do so under law, to provide child welfare services including placement for adoption, and to provide for the physical care of such children and make payment of maintenance costs if needed. Except where required by Public Law 95-608 (25 U.S.C. Sec.1915), no private adoption agency which receives children for adoption from the department shall discriminate on the basis of race, creed, or color when considering applications in their placement for adoption.

(7) Have authority to provide temporary shelter to children who have run away from home and who are admitted to crisis residential centers.

(8) Have authority to purchase care for children; and shall follow in general the policy of using properly approved private agency services for the actual care and supervision of such children insofar as they are available, paying for care of such children as are accepted by the department as eligible for support at reasonable rates established by the department.

(9) Establish a children's services advisory committee which shall assist the secretary in the development of a partnership plan for utilizing resources of the public and private sectors, and advise on all matters pertaining to child welfare, licensing of child care agencies, adoption, and services related thereto. At least one member shall represent the adoption community.

(10) Have authority to provide continued foster care or group care for individuals from eighteen through twenty years of age to enable them to complete their high school or vocational school program.

(11) Have authority within funds appropriated for foster care services to purchase care for Indian children who are in the custody of a federally recognized Indian tribe or tribally licensed child-placing agency pursuant to parental consent, tribal court order, or state juvenile court order; and the purchase of such care shall be subject to the same eligibility standards and rates of support applicable to other children for whom the department purchases care.

Notwithstanding any other provision of RCW 13.32A.170 through13.32A.200 and 74.13.032 through 74.13.036, or of this section all services to be provided by the department of social and health services under subsections (4), (6), and (7) of this section, subject to the limitations of these subsections, may be provided by any program offering such services funded pursuant to Titles II and III of the federal juvenile justice and delinquency prevention act of 1974.

(12) Within amounts appropriated for this specific purpose, provide preventive services to families with children that prevent or shorten the duration of out-of-home placement.

15.1011 RCW 74.13.080- Group Care Placement--Prerequisites for Payment

The department shall not make payment for any child in group care placement unless the group home is licensed and the department has the custody of the child and the authority to remove the child in a cooperative manner after at least seventy-two hours notice to the child care provider; such notice may be waived in emergency situations. However, this requirement shall not be construed to prohibit the department from making or mandate the department to make payment for Indian children placed in facilities licensed by federally recognized Indian tribes pursuant to chapter 74.15 RCW.

15.1012 RCW 74.15.020- Definitions

For the purpose of chapter 74.15 RCW and RCW 74.13.031, and unless otherwise clearly indicated by the context thereof, the following terms shall mean:

(1) "Agency" means any person, firm, partnership, association, corporation, or facility which receives children, expectant mothers, or persons with developmental disabilities for control, care, or maintenance outside their own homes, or which places, arranges the placement of, or assists in the placement of children, expectant mothers, or persons with developmental disabilities for foster care or placement of children for adoption, and shall include the following irrespective of whether there is compensation to the agency or to the children, expectant mothers or persons with developmental disabilities for services rendered:

(a) "Child day-care center" means an agency which regularly provides care for a group of children for periods of less than twenty-four hours;

(b) "Child-placing agency" means an agency which places a child or children for temporary care, continued care, or for adoption;

(c)"Community facility" means a group care facility operated for the care of juveniles committed to the department under RCW 13.40.185. A county detention facility that houses juveniles committed to the department under RCW 13.40.185 pursuant to a contract with the department is not a community facility;

(d) "Crisis residential center" means an agency which is a temporary protective residential facility operated to perform the duties specified in chapter 13.32A RCW, in the manner provided in RCW 74.13.032 through 74.13.036;

(e) "Family day-care provider" means a child day-care provider who regularly provides child day care for not more than twelve children in the provider's home in the family living quarters;

(f) "Foster-family home" means an agency which regularly provides care on a twenty-four hour basis to one or more children, expectant mothers, or persons with developmental disabilities in the family abode of the person or persons under whose direct care and supervision the child, expectant mother, or person with a developmental disability is placed;

(g) "Group-care facility" means an agency, other than a foster-family home, which is maintained and operated for the care of a group of children on a twenty-four hour basis;

(h) “HOPE center” means an agency licensed by the secretary to provide temporary residential placement and other services to street youth. A street youth may remain in a HOPE center for thirty days while services are arranged and permanent placement is coordinated. No street youth may stay longer than thirty days unless approved by the department and any additional days approved by the department must be based on the unavailability of a long-term placement option. A street youth whose parent wants him or her returned to home may remain in a HOPE center until his or her parent arranges return of the youth, not longer. All other street youth must have court approval under chapter 13.34 or 13.32A RCW to remain in a HOPE center up to thirty days;

(i) "Maternity service" means an agency which provides or arranges for care or services to expectant mothers, before or during confinement, or which provides care as needed to mothers and their infants after confinement;

(j) “Responsible living skills program” means an agency licensed by the secretary that provides residential and transitional living services to persons ages sixteen to eighteen who are dependent under chapter 13.34 RCW and who have been unable to live in his or her legally authorized residence and, as a result, the minor lived outdoors or in another unsafe location not intended for occupancy by the minor. Dependent minors ages fourteen and fifteen may be eligible if no other placement alternative is available and the department approves the placement;

(k) "Service provider" means the entity that operates a community facility.

(2) "Agency" shall not include the following:

(a) Persons related to the child, expectant mother, or person with developmental disability in the following ways:

(i) Any blood relative, including those of half-blood, and including first cousins, nephews or nieces, and persons of preceding generations as denoted by prefixes of grand, great, or great-great;

(ii) Stepfather, stepmother, stepbrother, and stepsister;

(iii) A person who legally adopts a child or the child's parent as well as the natural and other legally adopted children of such persons, and other relatives of the adoptive parents in accordance with state law;

(iv) Spouses of any persons named in (i), (ii), or (iii) of this subsection (2)(a), even after the marriage is terminated; or

(v) Extended family members, as defined by the law or custom of the Indian child's tribe or, in the absence of such law or custom, a person who has reached the age of eighteen and who is the Indian child's grandparent, aunt or uncle, brother or sister, brother-in-law or sister-in-law, niece or nephew, first or second cousin, or stepparent who provides care in the family abode on a twenty-four-hour basis to an Indian child as defined in 25 U.S.C. Sec. 1903(4);

(b) Persons who are legal guardians of the child, expectant mother, or persons with developmental disabilities;

(c) Persons who care for a neighbor's or friend's child or children, with or without compensation, where:

(i) The person providing care for periods of less than twenty-four hours does not conduct such activity on an ongoing, regularly scheduled basis for the purpose of engaging in business, which includes, but is not limited to, advertising such care; or

(ii) The parent and person providing care on a twenty-four-hour basis have agreed to the placement in writing and the state is not providing any payment for the care;

(d) Parents on a mutually cooperative basis exchange care of one another's children;

(e) A person, partnership, corporation, or other entity that provides placement or similar services to exchange students or international student exchange visitors or persons who have the care of an exchange student in their home;

(f) Nursery schools or kindergartens which are engaged primarily in educational work with preschool children and in which no child is enrolled on a regular basis for more than four hours per day;

(g) Schools, including boarding schools, which are engaged primarily in education, operate on a definite school year schedule, follow a stated academic curriculum, accept only school-age children and do not accept custody of children;

(h) Seasonal camps of three months' or less duration engaged primarily in recreational or educational activities;

(i) Hospitals licensed pursuant to chapter 70.41 RCW when performing functions defined in chapter 70.41 RCW, nursing homes licensed under chapter 18.51 RCW and boarding homes licensed under chapter 18.20 RCW;

(j) Licensed physicians or lawyers;

(k) Facilities providing care to children for periods of less than twenty-four hours whose parents remain on the premises to participate in activities other than employment;

(l) Facilities approved and certified under chapter 71A.22 RCW;

(m) Any agency having been in operation in this state ten years prior to June 8, 1967, and not seeking or accepting moneys or assistance from any state or federal agency, and is supported in part by an endowment or trust fund;

(n) Persons who have a child in their home for purposes of adoption, if the child was placed in such home by a licensed child-placing agency, an authorized public or tribal agency or court or if a pre-placement report has been filed under chapter 26.33 RCW and the placement has been approved by the court;

(o) An agency operated by any unit of local, state, or federal government or an agency, located within the boundaries of a federally recognized Indian reservation, licensed by the Indian tribe;

(p) An agency located on a federal military reservation, except where the military authorities request that such agency be subject to the licensing requirements of this chapter.

(3) "Department" means the state department of social and health services.

(4) "Juvenile" means a person under the age of twenty-one who has been sentenced to a term of confinement under the supervision of the department under RCW 13.40.185.

(5) "Probationary license" means a license issued as a disciplinary measure to an agency that has previously been issued a full license but is out of compliance with licensing standards.

(6) "Requirement" means any rule, regulation, or standard of care to be maintained by an agency.

(7) "Secretary" means the secretary of social and health services.

(8) “Street youth” means a person under the age of eighteen who lives outdoors or in another unsafe location not intended for occupancy by a minor and who is not residing with his or her parent or at his or her legally authorized residence.

(9) “Transitional living services” means at a minimum, to the extent funds are available, the following:

(a) Educational services, including basic literacy and computational skills training, either in local alternative or public high schools or in a high school equivalency program that leads to obtaining a high school equivalency degree;

(b) Assistance and counseling related to obtaining vocational training or higher education, job readiness, job search assistance, and placement programs;

(c) Counseling and instruction in life skills such as money management, home management, consumer skills, parenting, health care, access to community resources, and transportation and housing options;

(d) Individual and group counseling; and

(e) Establishing networks with federal agencies and state and local organizations such as the United States department of labor, employment and training administration programs including the job training partnership act which administers private industry councils and the job corps; vocational rehabilitation; and volunteer programs.

15.1013 RCW 74.15.090- Licenses Required for Agencies

Except as provided in RCW 74.15.190, it shall hereafter be unlawful for any agency to receive children, expectant mothers or developmentally disabled persons for supervision or care, or arrange for the placement of such persons, unless such agency is licensed as provided in chapter 74.15 RCW.

15.1014 RCW 74.15.190- Authority of Indian Tribes to License Agencies Within Reservations--Placement of Children

The state of Washington recognizes the authority of Indian tribes within the state to license agencies, located within the boundaries of a federally recognized Indian reservation, to receive children for control, care, and maintenance outside their own homes, or to place, receive, arrange the placement of, or assist in the placement of children for foster care or adoption. The department and state licensed child-placing agencies may place children in tribally licensed facilities if the requirements of RCW 74.15.030 (2)(b) and (3) and supporting rules are satisfied before placing the children in such facilities by the department or any state licensed child-placing agency.