WAC 388-513-1301

Effective November 22, 2012

WAC 388-513-1301 Definitions related to long-term care (LTC) services


This section defines the meaning of certain terms used in chapters 388-513 and 388-515 WAC. Within these chapters, institutional, waiver, and hospice services are referred to collectively as LTC services. Other terms related to LTC services that also apply to other programs are found in the sections in which they are used.

Additional medical definitions that are not specific to LTC services can be found in WAC 182-500-0005 through 182-500-0110 Medical definitions.

Definitions of terms used in certain rules that regulate LTC programs are as follows:

"Adequate consideration" means the reasonable value of the goods or services received in exchange for transferred property approximates the reasonable value of the property transferred.

"Alternate living facility (ALF )," means one of the following that are contracted with the department to provide certain services:

  1. Adult family home (AFH), a licensed family home that provides its residents with personal care and board and room for two to six adults unrelated to the person(s) providing the care. Licensed as an adult family home under chapter 70.128 RCW.
  2. Adult residential care facility (ARC) (formerly known as a CCF) is a licensed facility that provides its residents with shelter, food, household maintenance, personal care and supervision. Licensed as an assisted living under chapter 18.20 RCW.
  3. Adult residential rehabilitation center (ARRC) described in WAC 388-865-0235 or Adult residential treatment facility (ARTF), described in WAC 388-865-0465  are licensed facilities that provides their residents with twenty-four hour residential care for impairments related to mental illness.
  4. Assisted living facility (AL), a licensed facility for aged and disabled low-income persons with functional disabilities. COPES eligible clients are often placed in assisted living. Licensed as an assisted living facility under chapter 18.20 RCW.
  5. Division of developmental disabilities (DDD) group home (GH), a licensed facility that provides its residents with twenty-four hour supervision. Depending on the size, a DDD group home may be licensed as an adult family home under chapter 70.128 RCW or an assisted living facility under chapter 18.20 RCW. Group home provide community residential instruction, supports, and services to two or more clients who are unrelated to the provider.
  6. Enhanced adult residential care facility (EARC), a licensed facility that provides its residents with those services provided in an ARC, in addition to those required because of the client’s special needs. Licensed as an assisted living facility under chapter 18.20 RCW.

“Authorization date” means the date payment begins for long-term care services described in WAC 388-106-0045.

"Clothing and personal incidentals (CPI)" means the cash payment issued by the department for clothing and personal items for individuals living in an ALF described in WAC 388-478-0045 or medical institution described in WAC 388-478-0040.

"Community Options Program Entry System (COPES)" means a Medicaid waiver program described in chapter 388-106 WAC that provides an aged or disabled person assessed as needing nursing facility care with the option to remain at home or in an alternate living facility (ALF).

"Community spouse (CS)" means a person who:

  1. Does not reside in a medical institution; and
  2. Is legally married to a client who resides in a medical institution or receives services from a home and community-based (HCB) waiver program. A person is considered married if not divorced, even when physically or legally separated from his or her spouse.

“Community spouse excess shelter” means the excess shelter standard is used to calculate whether a community spouse qualifies for the community spouse maintenance allowance because of high shelter costs. The federal maximum standard that is used to calculate the amount is found at:


“Community spouse income and family allocation” means:

  1. The community spouse income standard is used when there is a community spouse. It is used when determining the total allocation for the community spouse from the institutional spouse’s income.
  2. The family allocation income standard is used when a dependent resides with the community spouse. This amount is deducted from an institutional spouse’s payment for their cost of care to help support the dependent. The federal maximum standard that is used to calculate the amount can be found at: http://www.dshs.wa.gov/manuals/eaz/sections/LongTermCare/LTCstandardspna.shtml

“Community spouse maintenance allocation” means an amount deducted from an institutional spouse’s payment toward their cost of care in order for the community spouse to have enough income to pay their shelter costs. This is a combination of the community spouse income allocation and the community spouse excess shelter calculation. The federal maximum standard that is used to calculate the amount can be found at:

"Community spouse resource allocation (CSRA)" means the resource amount the community spouse is allowed. A community spouse resource evaluation is completed to determine if the standard is more than the state standard up to the federal community spouse transfer maximum standard.


"Community spouse resource evaluation" means a review of the couple owned at the start of the current period of institutional status. This review may result in a resource standard for the community spouse that is higher than the state standard.


"Community spouse transfer maximum" means the federal maximum standard that is used to determine the community spouse resource allocation (CSRA). This standard is found at: http://www.dshs.wa.gov/manuals/eaz/sections/LongTermCare/LTCstandardspna.shtml.

“DDD waivers” mean Medicaid waiver programs described in chapter 388-845 WAC that provide home and community based services as an alternative to an intermediate care facility for the intellectually disabled (ICF-ID)  to persons determined eligible for services from DDD.

"Dependent" means an individual who is financially dependent upon another for his well-being as defined by financial responsibility regulations for the program. For the purposes of long-term care, rules allow allocation in post eligibility to a dependent. If the dependent is eighteen years or older and being claimed as a dependent for income tax purposes, a dependent allocation can be considered. This can include an adult child, a dependent parent or a dependent sibling.

"Equity" means the equity of real or personal property is the fair market value (see definition below) less any encumbrances (mortgages, liens, or judgments) on the property.

"Exception to rule (ETR)" means a waiver by the secretary's designee to a department policy for a specific client experiencing an undue hardship because of the policy. The waiver may not be contrary to law.

"Fair Market Value (FMV)" means the price an asset may reasonably be expected to sell for on the open market at the time of transfer or assignment.


"Federal benefit rate (FBR)" means the basic benefit amount the Social Security Administration (SSA) pays to clients who are eligible for the supplemental security income (SSI) program.

"Home and community based services" (HCBS) means services provided in the home or a residential setting to individuals assessed by the department.


"Home and community based (HCB) waiver programs" means section

1915(c) of the social security act enables states to request a waiver of applicable federal medicaid requirements to provide enhanced community support services to those Medicaid beneficiaries who would otherwise require the level of care provided in a hospital, nursing facility or intermediate care facility for the intellectually disabled (ICF-ID).


"Initial eligibility" means part one of institutional medical eligibility for long-term care services. Once resource and general eligibility is met, the gross non-excluded income is compared to three hundred percent of the federal benefit rate (FBR) for a determination of CN or MN coverage.

"Institutional services" means services paid for by Medicaid or state payment and provided in a medical institution, through a home and community based (HCB) waiver or program of all-inclusive care for the elderly (PACE).

"Institutional status" means what is described in WAC 388-513-1320.

"Institutionalized client" means a client who has attained institutional status as described in WAC 388-513-1320.

"Institutionalized spouse" means legally married person who has attained institutional status as described in chapter 388-513 WAC, and receives services in a medical institution or from a home and community based waiver program described in chapter 388-513 and 388-515 WAC. A person is considered married if not divorced, even when physically or legally separated from his or her spouse.

"Legally married" means persons legally married to each other under provision of Washington State law. Washington recognizes other states’ legal and common-law marriages. Persons are considered married if they are not divorced, even when they are physically or legally separated.

"Likely to reside" means a determination by the department that a client is reasonably expected to remain in a medical institution for thirty consecutive days. Once made, the determination stands, even if the client does not actually remain in the facility for that length of time.

"Look-back period" means the number of months prior to the month of application for LTC services that the department will consider for transfer of assets.

"Maintenance needs amount" means a monthly income amount a client keeps as a personal needs allowance or that is allocated to a spouse or dependent family member who lives in the client’s home. (See community spouse maintenance allocation and community spouse income and family allocation).

“Medicaid personal care (MPC)” means a medicaid state plan program authorized under RCW 74.09.520. Clients eligible for this program may receive personal care in their own home or in a residential facility. Financial eligibility is based on a client receiving a noninstitutional categorically needy (CN) medical program.

"Non-institutional medical assistance" means any medical benefits or programs not authorized under chapter 388-513 or 388-515 WAC. The exception is WAC 388-513-1305  noninstitutional SSI related clients living in an ALF.

“Participation” means the amount a client is responsible to pay each month toward the total cost of care they receive each month. It is the amount remaining after subtracting allowable deductions and allocations from available monthly income. Individuals receiving services in an ALF pay room and board in addition to calculated participation. Participation is the result of the post-eligibility process used in institutional and HCB waiver eligibility.

"Penalty period" means a period of time for which a client is not eligible to receive LTC services due to asset transfers.

"Personal needs allowance (PNA)" means a standard allowance for clothing and other personal needs for long-term care clients who live in a medical institution or alternate living facility, or at home.

"Short stay" means a person who has entered a medical institution but is not likely to remain institutionalized for thirty consecutive days.

"Special income level (SIL)" means the monthly income standard for the categorically needy (CN) program that is three hundred percent of the SSI Federal Benefit Rate (FBR).

"Spousal impoverishment" means financial provisions to protect income and assets of the noninstitutional (community spouse) through income and resource allowances. The spousal allocation process is used to discourage the impoverishment of a spouse due to the need for LTC services by their husband or wife. That law and those that have extended and/or amended it are referred to as spousal impoverishment legislation. (Section 1924 of the Social Security Act).

"State spousal resource standard" means minimum resource standard allowed for a community spouse. (See community spouse resource transfer maximum).

"Swing bed" means a bed in a critical access hospital that is contracted to be used as either a hospital or a nursing facility bed based on the need of the individual.

"Third party resource (TPR)" means a resource where the purpose of the payment is for payment of assistance of daily living or medical services or personal care. Third party resources are described in WAC 182-501-0200. The department is considered the payer of last resort as described in WAC 182-502-0100.

"Transfer of a resource or asset" means changing ownership or title of an asset such as income, real property, or personal property by one of the following:

  1. An intentional act that changes ownership or title; or
  2. A failure to act that results in a change of ownership or title.

“Transfer date for real property or interest in real property” means:

  1. The date of transfer for real property is the day the deed is signed by the grantor if the deed is recorded; or
  2. The date of transfer for the real property is the day the signed deed is delivered to the grantee.

“Transfer month” means the calendar month in which resources were legally transferred.

"Uncompensated value" means the fair market value (FMV) of an asset at the time of transfer minus the value of compensation the person receives in exchange for the asset.

"Undue hardship" means the person is not able to meet shelter, food, clothing, or health needs. Clients who are denied or terminated from LTC services due to a transfer of asset penalty or having excess home equity may apply for an undue hardship waiver based on criteria described in WAC 388-513-1367.

"Value of compensation received" means the consideration the purchaser pays or agrees to pay. Compensation includes:

  1. All money, real or personal property, food, shelter, or services the person receives under a legally enforceable purchase agreement whereby the person transfers the asset; and
  2. The payment or assumption of a legal debt the seller owes in exchange for the asset.

"Veterans benefits" means different types of benefits paid by the federal Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Some may include additional allowances for:

  1. Aid and attendance for an individual needing regular help from another person with activities of daily living;
  2. "Housebound" for an individual who, when without assistance from another person, is confined to the home;
  3. Improved pension, the newest type of VA disability pension, available to veterans and their survivors whose income from other sources (including service connected disability) is below the improved pension amount;
  4. Unusual medical expenses (UME), determined by the VA based on the amount of unreimbursed medical expenses reported by the person who receives a needs-based benefit. The VA can use UME to reduce countable income to allow the person to receive a higher monthly VA payment, a one-time adjustment payment, or both.
  5. Dependent allowance veteran's payments made to, or on behalf of, spouses of veterans or children regardless of their ages or marital status. Any portion of a veteran's payment that is designated as the dependent's income is countable income to the dependent; or
  6. Special monthly compensation (SMC). Extra benefit paid to a veteran in addition to the regular disability compensation to a veteran who, as a result of military service, incurred the loss or loss of use of specific organs or extremities.

"Waiver Programs/Services" means programs for which the federal government authorizes exceptions to Medicaid rules. Such programs provide to an eligible client a variety of services not normally covered under Medicaid. In Washington State, home and community based (HCB) waiver programs are authorized by the division of developmental disabilities (DDD), or home and community services (HCS).


This is a reprint of the official rule as published by the Office of the Code Reviser. If there are previous versions of this rule, they can be found using the Legislative Search page.